Abba – Daddy
aliya – immigration to Israel
Bamidbar – Numbers
Bereishis/Bereishit – Genesis
chametz – leavened foods such as bread, cereal, cake, etc. that were made with one of the five grains. These foods are not allowed to be eaten on Pesach.
Choshen Mishpat – section 4 of Shulchan Aruch
Chumash – Pentateuch
Dat Moshe – the laws of Moses (i.e., what is d’oraita, see below). Meaning: This law was passed down to us from Moses, and therefore binding d’oraita. Often wrongly used to mean written laws, both d’oraita and d’rabanan; also often used to refer to things that are Dat Yehudit.
Dat Yehudit – the laws of Judith, i.e., womens’ laws. This refers to stringencies and/or behaviors that women took upon themselves over the generations, and therefore came to be an expected part of a Jewish woman’s conduct. Some of these laws were incorporated into the category of “d’rabanan” while others are considered “unwritten rules” that women are still expected to keep. (FTR: Men have many more laws to keep than women. Don’t feel too bad.) Most Jews are not aware of the concept of Dat Yehudit (or Dat Moshe) and assume all laws to be a clear-cut d’oraita or d’rabanan.
Devarim – Deuteronomy
d’oraita – A law from the (written, or oral) Torah itself.
d’rabanan – A law that was created by the rabbis (usually long, long ago) in order to aid us in not violating the Torah’s commandments. These laws are binding today.
Even Ha’ezer – section 3 of Shulchan Aruch
gan – preschool
ganenet – preschool teacher
halacha – Jewish law
HY”D – may G-d avenge his/her/their blood. Short for Hashem Yikom Damo /dama/ damam
Ima – Mommy
kashrut/kashrus – keeping kosher. This means not eating meat and milk together, keeping separate sets of dishes, not eating shellfish, pork, and certain types of fish and birds. In other words, it’s complicated.
kohen – Jewish priest. This is not learned or earned, but handed from father to son. If a child’s father was a kohen, he is, too.
Kotel – the Western (Wailing) Wall
mivtza – 1) military operation; 2) sale
Orach Chaim – section 1 of Shulchan Aruch
Pesach – Passover
Rosh Hashana – the Jewish new year
Shabbat/Shabbos – the Jewish Sabbath
Shemos/Shemot – Exodus
shul – synagogue
Shulchan Aruch – Code of Jewish Law
sotah – adulterous woman
soteh – an adulterous man, otherwise known as pervert
Sukkot/Sukkos – the holiday of Tabernacles
Vayikra – Leviticus
Yom Kippur – the Day of Atonement
Yora Deah – section 2 of Shulchan Aruch